Serial_Lcd C / C++ Code Comparison

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#1
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As mentioned on another thread, I modified microcarl's excellent My_LCD code to add significant features. I'm attaching my version of the firmware for his My_LCD Serial Backpack project to this message.

Of other importance is that I'm attaching a C++ port that compiles under AVR-GCC and IAR. Additionally, I posted results of resulting code sizes. Below is a copy of the README file from the .zip file:[code]This is my version of AVR code to drive the My_LCD Serial Backpack
Project as created by Carl W. Livingston. There are a number of
improvments as detailed in the CHANGES file.

Additionally, this project is used to demonstrate how C code can be
turned into equivalent C++ classes and to view the resulting
differences in assembly output. The C++ classes are considered
"equivalent" to the C code in that the same inlining of functions were
used. Also, the C++ classes were only to segment functions. No C++
class object contents member variables. The global variables in the C
code remain global in the C++ code. Primarily, because these variables
are stored in CPU and IO registers for greater efficiency. Other
variables, like the UART circular buffer, remain in global memory
space so its address is known at compile time and spare the address
computation required if the variable was a member of a C++ object.

At this point, the C++ objects could be turned into isolated objects
with their own member variables and having more isolated
initialization of global IO registers. This would be essential if they
were to be used in some sort of AVR C++ library. However, the C++ code
is already larger than the C code and both code-size and run-time
efficiency would be negatively impacted by this change. This might not
be an issue for a larger AVR, but this project targets the ATTiny2313
with only 2K of flash memory and 128 bytes of SRAM.

The code can be modified and redistributed as governed by the terms of
the accompaning LICENSE file.

Code/Data Sizes (for 20071230 release)
======================================

Compiler Code Data Notes
--------- ---- ---- -----
AVR-GCC C 744 48 -Os
AVR-GCC C++ 910 53 -Os
IAR C 664 48 Size optimization high
IAR C++ 896 50 Size optimization high
ICC7 824 48 Full optimizations

Edit: I've deleted the posted code since I've moved hosting of the project to http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/

Last Edited: Sun. Mar 16, 2008 - 05:36 AM
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Unfortunately the file you have upload is not the "serial_lcd-20071230.zip" but some "index.php".

Michael.

User of:
IAR Embedded Workbench C/C++ Compiler
Altium Designer

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The download link tests fine for me with Internet Explorer. Are you clicking the link or trying to right-mouse click it and "Save Target As...". Using the regular mouse button works fine for me, I suspect trying to save with the right-mouse button will lead to the problem you mentioned.

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I am using thw maxthon browser, after clicking the "Download" a dialog apears saying save or cancel? Chossing save, the "index.php" file is saved.

Let me try it with the explorer.

Michael.

User of:
IAR Embedded Workbench C/C++ Compiler
Altium Designer

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If you get the same results with explorer, it would be interesting to see what the index.php file contains. That would not be a file from my computer.

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The same again.

Does anybody else except kmr can download the file.

kmr, I will try it using another method.

Michael.

User of:
IAR Embedded Workbench C/C++ Compiler
Altium Designer

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I see the URL for the download link is "https://www.avrfreaks.net/index.p..."

Can you check if the file named index.php is really the zip file. If it is, then a file renaming error is occuring that is not occuring on my system.

If the index.php is really a .php file, then for some reason the server is giving you the .php code file rather than presenting for download the actual .zip file. This seems less likely than the first senario.

Last Edited: Sun. Dec 30, 2007 - 09:57 AM
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The file's header is 50h 4Bh (PK).

Reading the file in a hex editor I can see in the last files words something like:
gcc_c_cpp_comparison/MakefileUT

Is this something included in the file you have uploaded?

Michael.

User of:
IAR Embedded Workbench C/C++ Compiler
Altium Designer

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It appears that you did get the proper .zip file, but for some reason your browser is not properly renaming it. Change the name of the file to serial_lcd-20071230.zip and then you should be able to unzip it.

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kmr,

I found it.

I' ve renamed the .php file to . zip file and everything is fine.

Do you have an idea why this happened?

Michael.

User of:
IAR Embedded Workbench C/C++ Compiler
Altium Designer

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Well, I know the steps in how it should work correctly, but I don't know why it happened to you. The name of the server file that replies with the HTTP headers to download the file is named index.php. However, as part of the HTTP headers, the name of the file it should be stored as is given. Why it did not store under that name on your sysem is not clear to me.

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The download not getting the correct name is a known problem with the forum software and/or IE. Just rename the file when saving and all should be well. Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.11 has no problem with it.

As of January 15, 2018, Site fix-up work has begun! Now do your part and report any bugs or deficiencies here

No guarantees, but if we don't report problems they won't get much of  a chance to be fixed! Details/discussions at link given just above.

 

"Some questions have no answers."[C Baird] "There comes a point where the spoon-feeding has to stop and the independent thinking has to start." [C Lawson] "There are always ways to disagree, without being disagreeable."[E Weddington] "Words represent concepts. Use the wrong words, communicate the wrong concept." [J Morin] "Persistence only goes so far if you set yourself up for failure." [Kartman]

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Thanks for the info, Johan. This was my first upload. However, the naming did work correctly on IE 7 / Vista SP1rc1.

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JohanEkdahl wrote:
The download not getting the correct name is a known problem with the forum software and/or IE. Just rename the file when saving and all should be well. Mozilla Firefox 2.0.0.11 has no problem with it.

I concur with Johan. My Firefox worked as expected.

Thanks Kevin.

Ross McKenzie ValuSoft Melbourne Australia

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Thanks for the report, Ross, and you're quite welcome!

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The file downloaded just fine for me using IE7 Version: 7.0.5730.11

Good job Kevin...

You can avoid reality, for a while.  But you can't avoid the consequences of reality! - C.W. Livingston

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microcarl wrote:
The file downloaded just fine for me using IE7 Version: 7.0.5730.11
Was that with WinXP?
Quote:
Good job Kevin...
Thanks and same right back at ya', Carl. Somewhat ironically, your nice, tight code made it easier to create this version with additional features and cross-compiler support. Looking at some of the other LCD libraries, I would have had to strip out a bunch of stuff to rebuild into what the code currently is. So, again, kudos to you for your excellent firmware and project.

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kmr wrote:
microcarl wrote:
The file downloaded just fine for me using IE7 Version: 7.0.5730.11
Was that with WinXP?

Yup! Windows XP, Home Edition.

You can avoid reality, for a while.  But you can't avoid the consequences of reality! - C.W. Livingston

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microcarl wrote:
Yup! Windows XP, Home Edition.
Very good, the current version of IE is working on XP and Vista -- I'll remember that if the issue comes up again for someone.

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By eliminating the constructors I saw a reduction of 68 bytes. I haven't any easy way to test if I broke anything, though.

While looking in the map file for constructor usage, I noticed an odd discrepancy. The vector table for the C++ version is smaller because crts8515.o was linked in instead of crttn2313.o. Perhaps this is my fault somehow, but in any case I am using 20071221rc1.

Quibbles: Carl's name appears to be spelled incorrectly in the source file. Also, in LICENSE the section "LICENSE for Carl W. Livingston code" is lacking in that it refers to "the below copyright notice appears" when in fact no such notice appears "below".

C: i = "told you so";

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Thanks for the feedback, cpluscon. I'll fix the typos and cut-and-paste errors you notice. I supplied a Makefile for GCC that compiles the C and C++ code and generates .map and .lss files. That Makefile should link fine to crttn2313.o

As for the constructors, you're referring to the empty constructors, I assume. That's a good / quick optimization idea of eliminating the empty constructors.

Edit: I commented out the empty constructors, but don't get any difference in the binary code size.

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Also I moved the following initializations into init() so the constructor wouldn't be needed.

  Uart() {
    sUartRxHead = 0;
    sUartRxTail = 0;
  }

I theorize that by getting rid of ALL constructors the compiler can eliminate the constructor calling loop which is in .init6 I think.

I double checked and again the C++ version is linking crts8515.o. Can you check your MAP file?

C: i = "told you so";

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cpluscon, that's a good theory about getting rid of all constructors.
In general, I like constructors. However, in this embedded application, when I want the objects to live in data space, I there is some benefit to have control over when the initialization code is executed. Thus, the reason for using init() methods. Does that sound like a reasonable approach in this setting to you? (This is one of those areas where C++ adds flexibiliy over C, so a decision how to best design is required).

I'll check the map files. The next release will contain the map and list files for all of the compilers that I referenced in the README.

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What have I started??? :roll:

Looking at the revised code, I haven't a clue as to what's going on... :oops:

Have fun! :lol:

Happy New Year!!! :wink:

You can avoid reality, for a while.  But you can't avoid the consequences of reality! - C.W. Livingston

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cpluscon wrote:
I theorize that by getting rid of ALL constructors the compiler can eliminate the constructor calling loop which is in .init6 I think.
Yes, removing all the constructors reduces the code size in both GCC and IAR. The next version of the package will include that change.
Quote:
I double checked and again the C++ version is linking crts8515.o. Can you check your MAP file?
You are correct, I fixed the Makefile.

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microcarl wrote:
Looking at the revised code, I haven't a clue as to what's going on...
Well, yes, that's the irony I mentioned before. Your simple code make it easy to make something complex :roll:

A significant bulk of the code is making it compatible between IAR, ICC, and GCC using my cross-compiler macros. Extracting those macros from a number of my local header files into the serial_lcd.h file makes it fairly complex.

Yes, I agree the current code doesn't resemble your original code very much. However, functionally, it is roughly the same as a version that I emailed to you a few weeks ago.

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So how many serial backpacks do you want???

Oh! You get to program them...

You can avoid reality, for a while.  But you can't avoid the consequences of reality! - C.W. Livingston

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microcarl wrote:
So how many serial backpacks do you want?
It would be cool if your hardware design and PCB was a starting platform for some optimized, cross-compiler compatible C++ AVR library.

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I've released a new version of the distribution. The main changes are:

- removal of C++ constructors which reduces code size for IAR & GCC
- inclusion of map and assembly output for each compiler
- addition of serial_lcd_tester which runs under Cygwin and Linux to test the serial_lcd firmware

Edit: I've deleted the posted code since I've moved hosting of the project to http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/

Last Edited: Sun. Mar 16, 2008 - 05:38 AM
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Mined from the MAP files:

 17		LcdBusyWait			 17		Lcd::busyWait()
 13		LcdWriteData		   13		Lcd::putChar(u8)
 14		LcdWriteCmd			 14		Lcd::putCmd(u8)
 12		GetUsartBaud		   12		Uart::baud()
113		main				    209		main
 46		__vector_7			  41		__vector_7
 35		LcdInit				
 12		UsartInit				
 13		LedPwmInit				
								      21		Uart::waitRxChar()

So main() is significantly larger for C++. I haven't examined the emitted code but speculate that the extra space is for calling the ::init functions. That doesn't make a lot of sense though since the C code has to make similar initializaitons....

A comment on eliminating constructors: for the sake of the "challenge" I'm interested less in reducing the size of the C++ result but more in understanding where the extra space is used and why. So if one were determined to use C++ on a low-resource MCU, it would be good to know that some bytes can be saved by doing without constructors.

C: i = "told you so";

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cpluscon wrote:
So main() is significantly larger for C++. I haven't examined the emitted code but speculate that the extra space is for calling the ::init functions. That doesn't make a lot of sense though since the C code has to make similar initializaitons....
I took a quick look at the emitted code for main in C++ (and the assembly listing is now included in the 20071231 release). While my goal was to have equivalent inlined function, I see that the C++ init functions are inlined but the C init functions are not.

Quote:
A comment on eliminating constructors: for the sake of the "challenge" I'm interested less in reducing the size of the C++ result but more in understanding where the extra space is used and why. So if one were determined to use C++ on a low-resource MCU, it would be good to know that some bytes can be saved by doing without constructors.
Examination of the 20071230 assembly output will answer the question definitively. But, your initial suspicion about omitting code related to memory initialization has a significant likelyhood of being correct.

A third part of this "challenge" could be examining the program and data memory overhead of bundling a third version of the firmware which used real C++ objects which are initialized with ports and pins identifiers and the objects store their hardware parameters. This would be useful if one wanted to create a C++ library that can be easily included and the functionality of the object being set as parameters to the init function.

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Quote:

So main() is significantly larger for C++.

FWIW: I'm conducting some small experiments here (will post if I get something significant), and a C++ main is not always larger than a C main. In the very small experiments I did ther was no difference whatsoever. But (and that might be big but) those experiments where so small and trivial that the compiler decded to inline the function/method.

As of January 15, 2018, Site fix-up work has begun! Now do your part and report any bugs or deficiencies here

No guarantees, but if we don't report problems they won't get much of  a chance to be fixed! Details/discussions at link given just above.

 

"Some questions have no answers."[C Baird] "There comes a point where the spoon-feeding has to stop and the independent thinking has to start." [C Lawson] "There are always ways to disagree, without being disagreeable."[E Weddington] "Words represent concepts. Use the wrong words, communicate the wrong concept." [J Morin] "Persistence only goes so far if you set yourself up for failure." [Kartman]

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Thanks for the feedback, Johan. I posted before the difference was in the C code was calling non-inlined functions. I've since fixed that and have improved the encapsulation of the C++ version significantly without increasing the code size.

I'll get a new version posted today.

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This is the 20080101 (Happy New Year) release. The main differences between earlier releases are:

- Significantly encapsulated more C data into C++ classes without any increase in C++ compiled source code size.

- Started new C++ file (serial_lcd_obj.cpp) which uses objects that store their own local variables. This is important for making a C++ library of reusable AVR classes at the expense of greater flash and static ram usage.

As usual, current flash and static memory sizes across compilers are in the README file.

Edit: I've deleted the posted code since I've moved hosting of the project to http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/

Last Edited: Sun. Mar 16, 2008 - 05:38 AM
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serial_lcd_obj.cpp seems to be missing and the make fails looking for it. (Forget to include it?)

C: i = "told you so";

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Aye, indeed, I forgot to update my Makefile for creating the zip file with that .cpp file. Attached is a new version.

Edit: I've deleted the posted code since I've moved hosting of the project to http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/

Last Edited: Sun. Mar 16, 2008 - 05:39 AM
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Attached is the 20080104 release. The main changes are further C++ encapsulations, use of GCC's OS_main attribute, and the full-object C++ version now having full LCD initialization parameters. Those initiailization paramaters (like the LedPwm parameters) allow one to have multiple objects of that class attached to different ports.

Edit: I've deleted the posted code since I've moved hosting of the project to http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/

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I've moved the code for this project to a permanent home at http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/

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I just finished adding Codevision compatibility. The current version is at http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/
The flash usage in order of size is:

Compiler Code Data Optimization 
IAR C        622 48 Size high (+ 64 bytes stack) 
AVR-GCC C    718 48 -Os 
IAR C++      762 49 Size high (+ 64 bytes stack) 
AVR-GCC C++  806 50 -Os 
CV 2.02.6    808 48 Maximum 
ICC7 C       818 48 Full 
IAR Obj     1112 65 Size high (+ 63 bytes stack) 
AVR-GCC Obj 1574 72 -Os 
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kmr wrote:
I just finished adding Codevision compatibility. The current version is at http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lcd/

Sorry, but I get only:

404 Not Found

The requested URL /serial_lcd/serial_lcd_20080319.zip was not found on this server.

I wrote a similar project on the ATtiny25 with autobaud:

https://www.avrfreaks.net/index.p...

Peter

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No 404 here - on the page the link to the code .zip is:

http://www.avrcode.com/serial_lc...

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Thanks for the notices, Gentlemen. The zip file has now been properly named on the server.

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It's there for me, Kevin.

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Thanks for the confirmation, Neil.

As an aside, while adding CV support over all is a good thing, having all the #asm statements in the body of the code to support CV is not so nice. I'm hoping Pavel soon adopts my request to add C99 _Pragma() support to clean-that up.

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Quote:
As an aside, while adding CV support over all is a good thing, having all the #asm statements in the body of the code to support CV is not so nice. I'm hoping Pavel soon adopts my request to add C99 _Pragma() support to clean-that up.

I guess you lost me on that one. [full disclosure: this is the first time I actually poked into the code for this project.] I ran through the code quickly. Are you referring to the multiple instances of SEI, CLI, and NOP? If so, cant you just do them once at the top, or in the .h, and end up with the same thing as the politically-correct compilers use? They are just putting a wrapper on an assembly language sequence, anyway.

The other one I noticed had to do with SLEEP. Did you consider using sleep.h and the built-in functions?

I think you are on a quest for size here, for comparison purposes. Unless it matters, I don't compile for size unless I'm tight, and usually not during early dev 'cause it makes the composite .LST and other debugging easier without jumping to the fragments.

Now a follow-up to help Mr. Standards-be-damned: How does a C99_Pragma() clean things up?

If I look at it again, I should see about the delay routines, and question why _delayxxx was used?

Lee

You can put lipstick on a pig, but it is still a pig.

I've never met a pig I didn't like, as long as you have some salt and pepper.

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theusch wrote:
Are you referring to the multiple instances of SEI, CLI, and NOP?
Yes
Quote:
If so, cant you just do them once at the top, or in the .h, and end up with the same thing as the politically-correct compilers use?
I don't think so (see below). sleep.h is a good idea, I'll check it out.
Quote:
I think you are on a quest for size here, for comparison purposes.
Somewhat, yes. This project came about from thread about C/C++ size differences. Some proposed this tiny complex number example with C/C++ sizes. So, I decided to make a "real" C++ application. Along the way, I decided it would also be interesting to compare the output of all the AVR C and C++ compilers.
Quote:
How does a C99_Pragma() clean things up?
Because the C preprocessor can not emit sharp ('#') characters. That character is necessary to emit #pragma statements from the C preprocessor. To get around the #asm() issues, I'd need to get Pavel to use like asm() like ICC or have a different way to notify the C compiler to expect assembly that doesn't involve a sharp character.

delay.h -- cool, I'll use that for CV which leaves ICC as the odd-compiler requiring a tuned delay loop.

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Quote:

Because the C preprocessor can not emit sharp ('#') characters.

Maybe with YOUR compiler brands. See below, and don't look a gift horse in the mouth--it would only be used for CV anyway. ;)

#include 
#define SEI() #asm("sei")
void main(void)
{
    SEI();
 
 while (1)
    {
    }
    
}
                 ;#include 
                 ;#define SEI() #asm("sei")
                 ;void main(void)
                 ; 0000 0004 {
                 
                 	.CSEG
                 _main:
                 ; 0000 0005     SEI();
00003d 9478      	sei
                 ; 0000 0006 

You can put lipstick on a pig, but it is still a pig.

I've never met a pig I didn't like, as long as you have some salt and pepper.

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Lee,

As I understand what a set of compatibility rules would do is say place compiler or architecture non-standard C as macros.

A #include "compiler.h" will resolve the SEI() macro as required.

If CodeVision used _Pragma asm("sei) instead of #asm("sei") then it obeys the C99 standard.

If the different compiler interrupt syntaxes are wrapped in an ISR(num) macro, the C source code obeys C99 and a compiler dependent macro expands to the relevant syntax.

IMHO, Atmel app-notes that conformed to these rules would benefit CV users. The application code examples would compile and run straight out of the box.

There are Compiler extensions that are so nice to use that most users will forgo "compatability". The sfr.4 syntax is a prime example. The transparent "eeprom" or "flash" handling is reasonably "Macro-able".

I am sure that you will have your own personal preferences. However the minor changes that are needed would benefit the AVR community.

David.

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Yahbut, there are a lot of #ifdef in that source anyway. You mentioned the ISR syntax. For CV, the macro that I posted works both in the "traditional" CV 1.xxx versions as well as the upcoming 2.xxx versions with the new front-end. So kmr's "objection" can be easily overcome for the purposes of this exercise.

Lee

You can put lipstick on a pig, but it is still a pig.

I've never met a pig I didn't like, as long as you have some salt and pepper.

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theusch wrote:
Quote:

Because the C preprocessor can not emit sharp ('#') characters.

Maybe with YOUR compiler brands. See below, and don't look a gift horse in the mouth--it would only be used for CV anyway. ;)
Thanks for the information on the work-around, Lee. As you may know, the restriction is from the C standard, not a limitation of other compiler vendors. GCC, for example, follows the C standard and gives an appropriate error message of
Quote:
error: '#' is not followed by a macro parameter
But, I'll take CVAVR's non-conformity as it assists my efforts.

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theusch wrote:
Yahbut, there are a lot of #ifdef in that source anyway.
Yes, there are. My goal is to have all #ifdef's in the .h file and none in the .c file. For IAR and GCC, that has been achieved. My goal is to achieve that for ImageCraft and CVAVR as well.

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