16x2 LCD INTERFACING WITH ATMEGA32

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I have tried a lot of codes, from different websites, this one from https://jaikumar-bhambhwani.blog...

atleast I could compile pm Atmel Studio7 

This is my code,

 

#ifndef F_CPU

#define F_CPU 8000000UL

#endif

 

#include <avr/io.h>

#include <util/delay.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

unsigned char save=0;

unsigned char k=0,j=0;

void dely_ns(unsigned char tim)

{

for(j=0;j<tim;j++)

{

for(k=0;k<11;k++)

{};

}

}

 

void latch(void)

{

PORTB&=~0x04;

dely_ns(200);

PORTB|=0x04;

dely_ns(200);

PORTB&=~0x04;

}

 

 

void lcd_cmd(unsigned char cmd)

{

PORTB&=~0x07;

PORTB=((cmd&0xF0));

latch();

PORTB=(((cmd&(0x0F))*16));

latch();

}

void lcd_init(void)

{

save=PORTB;

DDRB=0xFF;

PORTB=0x20;

lcd_cmd(0x01);

lcd_cmd(0x02);

lcd_cmd(0X80);

}

void lcd_string_signed(char* str)

{

unsigned char k=0;

PORTB=0x01;

PORTB=0X00;

while(str[k]!='\0') //Till null character is encountered

{

if(k==16)

lcd_cmd(0XC0);

PORTB=((str[k])&0xF0)|0x01;

latch();

PORTB=((str[k]&(0x0F))*16)|0x01;

latch();

k++;

}

}

void delay_ms(unsigned int ms)

{

int i;

 

while (ms-- > 0)

{

for (i = 0; i < 3276; ++i)

asm("nop");

}

}

void lcd_clear()

{

lcd_cmd(0x01);

}

 

 

int main()

{

char temp=atoi("HELLO WORLD");

int i=0;

lcd_init();

while(1)

{

for(i=0;i<10;i++)

{

lcd_string_signed(&temp);

_delay_ms(50);

lcd_clear();

}

}

return 1;

}

 

 

I want to see "HELLO WORLD" on the LCD after loading its hex file, but instead I just get a glowing green screen as shown in the .JPG file (attached). Can someone give me any hints or point out my mistake please? 

Attachment(s): 

This topic has a solution.

TBANRJEE

Last Edited: Wed. Jan 10, 2018 - 08:23 PM
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I just get a glowing green screen

On a REAL BOARD and LCD or a simulator??

 

Also I don't see any delays in the init as required by the LCD.

 

Re-post your code using the code <> tags above to make it a bit more legible.

John Samperi

Ampertronics Pty. Ltd.

www.ampertronics.com.au

* Electronic Design * Custom Products * Contract Assembly

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Your dely_ns() routine is probably being optimized away by the compiler, so there are no delays in the commands.

You have included <util/delay.h>, I would suggest using _delay_us(0.2) for your 200ns delay.

 

What LCD are you targeting?

Edit: as John said, I would expect the LCD to require delay periods between the commands...

David (aka frog_jr)

Last Edited: Wed. Jan 10, 2018 - 04:38 AM
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js wrote:
Re-post your code using the code <> tags above to make it a bit more legible.

Full instructions here: http://www.avrfreaks.net/comment...

 

EDIT

 

There's also instructions there on how to embed an image - so that it can actually be seen in your post.

Last Edited: Wed. Jan 10, 2018 - 11:27 AM
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The code has no hope of working as calling the function atoi with a text string isn’t going to work. It will return a null, which is lucky as only storage for one char has been allocated. You really just want to call lcd_string_signed(“HELLO HONKY TONKS!”);

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But why is it called lcd_string_signed() - since the individual characters are actually handled as:

unsigned char k=0;

?

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Tanushree Banerjee wrote:
I have tried a lot of codes, from different websites...

that's the trouble with just grabbing random code without understanding it.

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Tanushree Banerjee wrote:
I have tried a lot of codes, from different websites

Recommendations:

 

Peter Fleurys LCD code here.

Peter Danneggers LCD code here.

 

Fleurys code have been used by probably thousands of people and is proven to work. (Danneggers code might have been used  by many hundreds of people and is equally proved.)

 

If you can't get Fleurys code to work then you've misused it. Come back here and tell us what you've done and ask how to solve it. (Give ample details. Show schematic. Show code. Describe symptoms in detail. Tell how you've tried to debug.)

 


Re the code you refer to (both what you posted above, nd what you linked to) it does not use the stipulated init sequence. (You'd think that if someone had the guts to put up yet another web page about character LCDs and AVRs they'd have the decency to read the 44780 data sheet, and make sure to follow it..)

As of January 15, 2018, Site fix-up work has begun! Now do your part and report any bugs or deficiencies here

No guarantees, but if we don't report problems they won't get much of  a chance to be fixed! Details/discussions at link given just above.

 

"Some questions have no answers."[C Baird] "There comes a point where the spoon-feeding has to stop and the independent thinking has to start." [C Lawson] "There are always ways to disagree, without being disagreeable."[E Weddington] "Words represent concepts. Use the wrong words, communicate the wrong concept." [J Morin] "Persistence only goes so far if you set yourself up for failure." [Kartman]

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JohanEkdahl wrote:
If you can't get Fleurys code to work then you've misused it.
Tanushree Banerjee wrote:
but instead I just get a glowing green screen as shown in the .JPG file

???  The attachment shows a schematic, right?  Or is this some kind of simulator?

 

Is the contrast correct?  And uninitialized power-d-on character LCD with HD44780 controller (or compatible) will show every other line as dark boxes.  If you don't see that, then contrast is not correct and you will never see anything else, regardless of the firmware being used.

You can put lipstick on a pig, but it is still a pig.

I've never met a pig I didn't like, as long as you have some salt and pepper.

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JohanEkdahl wrote:
You'd think that if someone had the guts to put up yet another web page about character LCDs and AVRs they'd have the decency to read the 44780 data sheet, and make sure to follow it..

and not show bad habits like putting executable code in header files!

 

surprise

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As you told, I tried afresh with Peter Fleurys LCD  library, after downloading the library I  have found 3 files   - >  lcd.h file,  lcd.c file and  lcd_test.c file in the folder

In my project I'm using a C file which has the total code of lcd.c and lcd_test.c merged together in a single file as follows :

 

#ifndef F_CPU

# define F_CPU 4000000UL // clock speed is 16MHz

#endif


/*************************************************************************
Title:    Testing output to a HD44780 based LCD display.
Author:   Peter Fleury  <pfleury@gmx.ch>  http://tinyurl.com/peterfleury
File:     $Id: test_lcd.c,v 1.8 2015/01/31 18:04:08 peter Exp $
Software: AVR-GCC 4.x
Hardware: HD44780 compatible LCD text display
          AVR with external SRAM interface if memory-mapped LCD interface is used
          any AVR with 7 free I/O pins if 4-bit IO port mode is used
**************************************************************************/
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#include <util/delay.h>
#include "lcd.h"

/****************************************************************************
 Title:     HD44780U LCD library
 Author:    Peter Fleury <pfleury@gmx.ch>  http://tinyurl.com/peterfleury
 File:	    $Id: lcd.c,v 1.15.2.2 2015/01/17 12:16:05 peter Exp $
 Software:  AVR-GCC 3.3 
 Target:    any AVR device, memory mapped mode only for AT90S4414/8515/Mega

 DESCRIPTION
       Basic routines for interfacing a HD44780U-based text lcd display

       Originally based on Volker Oth's lcd library,
       changed lcd_init(), added additional constants for lcd_command(),
       added 4-bit I/O mode, improved and optimized code.

       Library can be operated in memory mapped mode (LCD_IO_MODE=0) or in 
       4-bit IO port mode (LCD_IO_MODE=1). 8-bit IO port mode not supported.
       
       Memory mapped mode compatible with Kanda STK200, but supports also
       generation of R/W signal through A8 address line.

 USAGE
       See the C include lcd.h file for a description of each function
       
*****************************************************************************/
#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/io.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>
#include <util/delay.h>
#include "lcd.h"



/* 
** constants/macros 
*/
#define DDR(x) (*(&x - 1))      /* address of data direction register of port x */
#if defined(__AVR_ATmega64__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega128__)
    /* on ATmega64/128 PINF is on port 0x00 and not 0x60 */
    #define PIN(x) ( &PORTF==&(x) ? _SFR_IO8(0x00) : (*(&x - 2)) )
#else
	#define PIN(x) (*(&x - 2))    /* address of input register of port x          */
#endif


#if LCD_IO_MODE
#define lcd_e_delay()   _delay_us(LCD_DELAY_ENABLE_PULSE)
#define lcd_e_high()    LCD_E_PORT  |=  _BV(LCD_E_PIN);
#define lcd_e_low()     LCD_E_PORT  &= ~_BV(LCD_E_PIN);
#define lcd_e_toggle()  toggle_e()
#define lcd_rw_high()   LCD_RW_PORT |=  _BV(LCD_RW_PIN)
#define lcd_rw_low()    LCD_RW_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_RW_PIN)
#define lcd_rs_high()   LCD_RS_PORT |=  _BV(LCD_RS_PIN)
#define lcd_rs_low()    LCD_RS_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_RS_PIN)
#endif

#if LCD_IO_MODE
#if LCD_LINES==1
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_1LINE 
#else
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_2LINES 
#endif
#else
#if LCD_LINES==1
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE
#else
#define LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT    LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_2LINES
#endif
#endif

#if LCD_CONTROLLER_KS0073
#if LCD_LINES==4

#define KS0073_EXTENDED_FUNCTION_REGISTER_ON  0x2C   /* |0|010|1100 4-bit mode, extension-bit RE = 1 */
#define KS0073_EXTENDED_FUNCTION_REGISTER_OFF 0x28   /* |0|010|1000 4-bit mode, extension-bit RE = 0 */
#define KS0073_4LINES_MODE                    0x09   /* |0|000|1001 4 lines mode */

#endif
#endif

/* 
** function prototypes 
*/
#if LCD_IO_MODE
static void toggle_e(void);
#endif

/*
** local functions
*/


/************************************************************************* 
delay for a minimum of <us> microseconds
the number of loops is calculated at compile-time from MCU clock frequency
*************************************************************************/
#define delay(us)  _delay_us(us) 


#if LCD_IO_MODE
/* toggle Enable Pin to initiate write */
static void toggle_e(void)
{
    lcd_e_high();
    lcd_e_delay();
    lcd_e_low();
}
#endif


/*************************************************************************
Low-level function to write byte to LCD controller
Input:    data   byte to write to LCD
          rs     1: write data    
                 0: write instruction
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
#if LCD_IO_MODE
static void lcd_write(uint8_t data,uint8_t rs) 
{
    unsigned char dataBits ;


    if (rs) {        /* write data        (RS=1, RW=0) */
       lcd_rs_high();
    } else {         /* write instruction (RS=0, RW=0) */
       lcd_rs_low();
    }
    lcd_rw_low();    /* RW=0  write mode      */

    if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
      && (LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0) && (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) )
    {
        /* configure data pins as output */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= 0x0F;

        /* output high nibble first */
        dataBits = LCD_DATA0_PORT & 0xF0;
        LCD_DATA0_PORT = dataBits |((data>>4)&0x0F);
        lcd_e_toggle();

        /* output low nibble */
        LCD_DATA0_PORT = dataBits | (data&0x0F);
        lcd_e_toggle();

        /* all data pins high (inactive) */
        LCD_DATA0_PORT = dataBits | 0x0F;
    }
    else
    {
        /* configure data pins as output */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA1_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA2_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA3_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
        
        /* output high nibble first */
        LCD_DATA3_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
        LCD_DATA2_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        LCD_DATA1_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        LCD_DATA0_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x80) LCD_DATA3_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x40) LCD_DATA2_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x20) LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x10) LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);   
        lcd_e_toggle();
        
        /* output low nibble */
        LCD_DATA3_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
        LCD_DATA2_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        LCD_DATA1_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        LCD_DATA0_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x08) LCD_DATA3_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x04) LCD_DATA2_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x02) LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
    	if(data & 0x01) LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        lcd_e_toggle();        
        
        /* all data pins high (inactive) */
        LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        LCD_DATA2_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        LCD_DATA3_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    }
}
#else
#define lcd_write(d,rs) if (rs) *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_DATA) = d; else *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_FUNCTION) = d;
/* rs==0 -> write instruction to LCD_IO_FUNCTION */
/* rs==1 -> write data to LCD_IO_DATA */
#endif


/*************************************************************************
Low-level function to read byte from LCD controller
Input:    rs     1: read data    
                 0: read busy flag / address counter
Returns:  byte read from LCD controller
*************************************************************************/
#if LCD_IO_MODE
static uint8_t lcd_read(uint8_t rs) 
{
    uint8_t data;
    
    
    if (rs)
        lcd_rs_high();                       /* RS=1: read data      */
    else
        lcd_rs_low();                        /* RS=0: read busy flag */
    lcd_rw_high();                           /* RW=1  read mode      */
    
    if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
      && ( LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0 )&& (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) )
    {
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) &= 0xF0;         /* configure data pins as input */
        
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();        
        data = PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT) << 4;     /* read high nibble first */
        lcd_e_low();
        
        lcd_e_delay();                       /* Enable 500ns low       */
        
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();
        data |= PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT)&0x0F;    /* read low nibble        */
        lcd_e_low();
    }
    else
    {
        /* configure data pins as input */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA1_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA2_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA3_PORT) &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
                
        /* read high nibble first */
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();        
        data = 0;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN) ) data |= 0x10;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA1_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN) ) data |= 0x20;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA2_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN) ) data |= 0x40;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA3_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN) ) data |= 0x80;
        lcd_e_low();

        lcd_e_delay();                       /* Enable 500ns low       */
    
        /* read low nibble */    
        lcd_e_high();
        lcd_e_delay();
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA0_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN) ) data |= 0x01;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA1_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN) ) data |= 0x02;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA2_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN) ) data |= 0x04;
        if ( PIN(LCD_DATA3_PORT) & _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN) ) data |= 0x08;        
        lcd_e_low();
    }
    return data;
}
#else
#define lcd_read(rs) (rs) ? *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_DATA+LCD_IO_READ) : *(volatile uint8_t*)(LCD_IO_FUNCTION+LCD_IO_READ)
/* rs==0 -> read instruction from LCD_IO_FUNCTION */
/* rs==1 -> read data from LCD_IO_DATA */
#endif


/*************************************************************************
loops while lcd is busy, returns address counter
*************************************************************************/
static uint8_t lcd_waitbusy(void)

{
    register uint8_t c;
    
    /* wait until busy flag is cleared */
    while ( (c=lcd_read(0)) & (1<<LCD_BUSY)) {}
    
    /* the address counter is updated 4us after the busy flag is cleared */
    delay(LCD_DELAY_BUSY_FLAG);

    /* now read the address counter */
    return (lcd_read(0));  // return address counter
    
}/* lcd_waitbusy */


/*************************************************************************
Move cursor to the start of next line or to the first line if the cursor 
is already on the last line.
*************************************************************************/
static inline void lcd_newline(uint8_t pos)
{
    register uint8_t addressCounter;


#if LCD_LINES==1
    addressCounter = 0;
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==2
    if ( pos < (LCD_START_LINE2) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE2;
    else
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE1;
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==4
#if KS0073_4LINES_MODE
    if ( pos < LCD_START_LINE2 )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE2;
    else if ( (pos >= LCD_START_LINE2) && (pos < LCD_START_LINE3) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE3;
    else if ( (pos >= LCD_START_LINE3) && (pos < LCD_START_LINE4) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE4;
    else 
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE1;
#else
    if ( pos < LCD_START_LINE3 )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE2;
    else if ( (pos >= LCD_START_LINE2) && (pos < LCD_START_LINE4) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE3;
    else if ( (pos >= LCD_START_LINE3) && (pos < LCD_START_LINE2) )
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE4;
    else 
        addressCounter = LCD_START_LINE1;
#endif
#endif
    lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+addressCounter);

}/* lcd_newline */


/*
** PUBLIC FUNCTIONS 
*/

/*************************************************************************
Send LCD controller instruction command
Input:   instruction to send to LCD controller, see HD44780 data sheet
Returns: none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_command(uint8_t cmd)
{
    lcd_waitbusy();
    lcd_write(cmd,0);
}


/*************************************************************************
Send data byte to LCD controller 
Input:   data to send to LCD controller, see HD44780 data sheet
Returns: none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_data(uint8_t data)
{
    lcd_waitbusy();
    lcd_write(data,1);
}



/*************************************************************************
Set cursor to specified position
Input:    x  horizontal position  (0: left most position)
          y  vertical position    (0: first line)
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_gotoxy(uint8_t x, uint8_t y)
{
#if LCD_LINES==1
    lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1+x);
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==2
    if ( y==0 ) 
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1+x);
    else
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2+x);
#endif
#if LCD_LINES==4
    if ( y==0 )
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1+x);
    else if ( y==1)
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2+x);
    else if ( y==2)
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE3+x);
    else /* y==3 */
        lcd_command((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE4+x);
#endif

}/* lcd_gotoxy */


/*************************************************************************
*************************************************************************/
int lcd_getxy(void)
{
    return lcd_waitbusy();
}


/*************************************************************************
Clear display and set cursor to home position
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_clrscr(void)
{
    lcd_command(1<<LCD_CLR);
}


/*************************************************************************
Set cursor to home position
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_home(void)
{
    lcd_command(1<<LCD_HOME);
}


/*************************************************************************
Display character at current cursor position 
Input:    character to be displayed                                       
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_putc(char c)
{
    uint8_t pos;


    pos = lcd_waitbusy();   // read busy-flag and address counter
    if (c=='\n')
    {
        lcd_newline(pos);
    }
    else
    {
#if LCD_WRAP_LINES==1
#if LCD_LINES==1
        if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE1+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ) {
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1,0);
        }
#elif LCD_LINES==2
        if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE1+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ) {
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2,0);    
        }else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE2+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ){
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1,0);
        }
#elif LCD_LINES==4
        if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE1+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ) {
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE2,0);    
        }else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE2+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ) {
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE3,0);
        }else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE3+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ) {
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE4,0);
        }else if ( pos == LCD_START_LINE4+LCD_DISP_LENGTH ) {
            lcd_write((1<<LCD_DDRAM)+LCD_START_LINE1,0);
        }
#endif
        lcd_waitbusy();
#endif
        lcd_write(c, 1);
    }

}/* lcd_putc */


/*************************************************************************
Display string without auto linefeed 
Input:    string to be displayed
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_puts(const char *s)
/* print string on lcd (no auto linefeed) */
{
    register char c;

    while ( (c = *s++) ) {
        lcd_putc(c);
    }

}/* lcd_puts */


/*************************************************************************
Display string from program memory without auto linefeed 
Input:     string from program memory be be displayed                                        
Returns:   none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_puts_p(const char *progmem_s)
/* print string from program memory on lcd (no auto linefeed) */
{
    register char c;

    while ( (c = pgm_read_byte(progmem_s++)) ) {
        lcd_putc(c);
    }

}/* lcd_puts_p */


/*************************************************************************
Initialize display and select type of cursor 
Input:    dispAttr LCD_DISP_OFF            display off
                   LCD_DISP_ON             display on, cursor off
                   LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR      display on, cursor on
                   LCD_DISP_CURSOR_BLINK   display on, cursor on flashing
Returns:  none
*************************************************************************/
void lcd_init(uint8_t dispAttr)
{
#if LCD_IO_MODE
    /*
     *  Initialize LCD to 4 bit I/O mode
     */
     
    if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
      && ( &LCD_RS_PORT == &LCD_DATA0_PORT) && ( &LCD_RW_PORT == &LCD_DATA0_PORT) && (&LCD_E_PORT == &LCD_DATA0_PORT)
      && (LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0 ) && (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) 
      && (LCD_RS_PIN == 4 ) && (LCD_RW_PIN == 5) && (LCD_E_PIN == 6 ) )
    {
        /* configure all port bits as output (all LCD lines on same port) */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= 0x7F;
    }
    else if ( ( &LCD_DATA0_PORT == &LCD_DATA1_PORT) && ( &LCD_DATA1_PORT == &LCD_DATA2_PORT ) && ( &LCD_DATA2_PORT == &LCD_DATA3_PORT )
           && (LCD_DATA0_PIN == 0 ) && (LCD_DATA1_PIN == 1) && (LCD_DATA2_PIN == 2) && (LCD_DATA3_PIN == 3) )
    {
        /* configure all port bits as output (all LCD data lines on same port, but control lines on different ports) */
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= 0x0F;
        DDR(LCD_RS_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RS_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_RW_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RW_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_E_PORT)     |= _BV(LCD_E_PIN);
    }
    else
    {
        /* configure all port bits as output (LCD data and control lines on different ports */
        DDR(LCD_RS_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RS_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_RW_PORT)    |= _BV(LCD_RW_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_E_PORT)     |= _BV(LCD_E_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA0_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA1_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA2_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA2_PIN);
        DDR(LCD_DATA3_PORT) |= _BV(LCD_DATA3_PIN);
    }
    delay(LCD_DELAY_BOOTUP);             /* wait 16ms or more after power-on       */
    
    /* initial write to lcd is 8bit */
    LCD_DATA1_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA1_PIN);    // LCD_FUNCTION>>4;
    LCD_DATA0_PORT |= _BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);    // LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT>>4;
    lcd_e_toggle();
    delay(LCD_DELAY_INIT);               /* delay, busy flag can't be checked here */
   
    /* repeat last command */ 
    lcd_e_toggle();      
    delay(LCD_DELAY_INIT_REP);           /* delay, busy flag can't be checked here */
    
    /* repeat last command a third time */
    lcd_e_toggle();      
    delay(LCD_DELAY_INIT_REP);           /* delay, busy flag can't be checked here */

    /* now configure for 4bit mode */
    LCD_DATA0_PORT &= ~_BV(LCD_DATA0_PIN);   // LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_1LINE>>4
    lcd_e_toggle();
    delay(LCD_DELAY_INIT_4BIT);          /* some displays need this additional delay */
    
    /* from now the LCD only accepts 4 bit I/O, we can use lcd_command() */    
#else
    /*
     * Initialize LCD to 8 bit memory mapped mode
     */
    
    /* enable external SRAM (memory mapped lcd) and one wait state */        
    MCUCR = _BV(SRE) | _BV(SRW);

    /* reset LCD */
    delay(LCD_DELAY_BOOTUP);                    /* wait 16ms after power-on     */
    lcd_write(LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE,0);   /* function set: 8bit interface */                   
    delay(LCD_DELAY_INIT);                      /* wait 5ms                     */
    lcd_write(LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE,0);   /* function set: 8bit interface */                 
    delay(LCD_DELAY_INIT_REP);                  /* wait 64us                    */
    lcd_write(LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE,0);   /* function set: 8bit interface */                
    delay(LCD_DELAY_INIT_REP);                  /* wait 64us                    */
#endif

#if KS0073_4LINES_MODE
    /* Display with KS0073 controller requires special commands for enabling 4 line mode */
	lcd_command(KS0073_EXTENDED_FUNCTION_REGISTER_ON);
	lcd_command(KS0073_4LINES_MODE);
	lcd_command(KS0073_EXTENDED_FUNCTION_REGISTER_OFF);
#else
    lcd_command(LCD_FUNCTION_DEFAULT);      /* function set: display lines  */
#endif
    lcd_command(LCD_DISP_OFF);              /* display off                  */
    lcd_clrscr();                           /* display clear                */ 
    lcd_command(LCD_MODE_DEFAULT);          /* set entry mode               */
    lcd_command(dispAttr);                  /* display/cursor control       */

}/* lcd_init */

/*
** constant definitions
*/
static const PROGMEM unsigned char copyRightChar[] =
{
	0x07, 0x08, 0x13, 0x14, 0x14, 0x13, 0x08, 0x07,
	0x00, 0x10, 0x08, 0x08, 0x08, 0x08, 0x10, 0x00
};


/*
** function prototypes
*/ 
void wait_until_key_pressed(void);


void wait_until_key_pressed(void)
{
    unsigned char temp1, temp2;
    
    do {
        temp1 = PIND;                  // read input
        _delay_ms(5);                  // delay for key debounce
        temp2 = PIND;                  // read input
        temp1 = (temp1 & temp2);       // debounce input
    } while ( temp1 & _BV(PIND2) );
    
    loop_until_bit_is_set(PIND,PIND2);            /* wait until key is released */
}


int main(void)
{
    char buffer[7];
    int  num=134;
    unsigned char i;
    
    
    DDRD &=~ (1 << PD2);        /* Pin PD2 input              */
    PORTD |= (1 << PD2);        /* Pin PD2 pull-up enabled    */


    /* initialize display, cursor off */
    lcd_init(LCD_DISP_ON);

    for (;;) {                           /* loop forever */
        /* 
         * Test 1:  write text to display
         */

        /* clear display and home cursor */
        lcd_clrscr();
        
        /* put string to display (line 1) with linefeed */
        lcd_puts("LCD Test Line 1\n");

        /* cursor is now on second line, write second line */
        lcd_puts("Line 2");
        
        /* move cursor to position 8 on line 2 */
        lcd_gotoxy(7,1);  
        
        /* write single char to display */
        lcd_putc(':');
        
        /* wait until push button PD2 (INT0) is pressed */
        wait_until_key_pressed();
        
        
        /*
         * Test 2: use lcd_command() to turn on cursor
         */
        
        /* turn on cursor */
        lcd_command(LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR);

        /* put string */
        lcd_puts( "CurOn");
        
        /* wait until push button PD2 (INT0) is pressed */
        wait_until_key_pressed();


        /*
         * Test 3: display shift
         */
        
        lcd_clrscr();     /* clear display home cursor */

        /* put string from program memory to display */
        lcd_puts_P( "Line 1 longer than 14 characters\n" );
        lcd_puts_P( "Line 2 longer than 14 characters" );
        
        /* move BOTH lines one position to the left */
        lcd_command(LCD_MOVE_DISP_LEFT);
        
        /* wait until push button PD2 (INT0) is pressed */
        wait_until_key_pressed();

        /* turn off cursor */
        lcd_command(LCD_DISP_ON);
        
        
        /*
         *   Test: Display integer values
         */
        
        lcd_clrscr();   /* clear display home cursor */
        
        /* convert interger into string */
        itoa( num , buffer, 10);
        
        /* put converted string to display */
        lcd_puts(buffer);
        
        /* wait until push button PD2 (INT0) is pressed */
        wait_until_key_pressed();
        
        
        /*
         *  Test: Display userdefined characters
         */

       lcd_clrscr();   /* clear display home cursor */
       
       lcd_puts("Copyright: ");
       
       /*
        * load two userdefined characters from program memory
        * into LCD controller CG RAM location 0 and 1
        */
       lcd_command(_BV(LCD_CGRAM));  /* set CG RAM start address 0 */
       for(i=0; i<16; i++)
       {
           lcd_data(pgm_read_byte_near(&copyRightChar[i]));
       }
       
       /* move cursor to position 0 on line 2 */
       /* Note: this switched back to DD RAM adresses */
       lcd_gotoxy(0,1);
       
       /* display user defined (c), built using two user defined chars */
       lcd_putc(0);
       lcd_putc(1);
       

       /* wait until push button PD2 (INT0) is pressed */
       wait_until_key_pressed();
              
    }
}

And also added the header file into the folder avr/include/lcd.h  .

The header file is as follows : 

 

#ifndef LCD_H
#define LCD_H
/*************************************************************************
 Title	:   C include file for the HD44780U LCD library (lcd.c)
 Author:    Peter Fleury <pfleury@gmx.ch>  http://tinyurl.com/peterfleury
 File:	    $Id: lcd.h,v 1.14.2.4 2015/01/20 17:16:07 peter Exp $
 Software:  AVR-GCC 4.x
 Hardware:  any AVR device, memory mapped mode only for AVR with 
            memory mapped interface (AT90S8515/ATmega8515/ATmega128)
***************************************************************************/ 

/**
 @mainpage
 Collection of libraries for AVR-GCC
 @author Peter Fleury pfleury@gmx.ch http://tinyurl.com/peterfleury
 @copyright (C) 2015 Peter Fleury, GNU General Public License Version 3
 
 @file
 @defgroup pfleury_lcd LCD library <lcd.h>
 @code #include <lcd.h> @endcode
 
 @brief Basic routines for interfacing a HD44780U-based character LCD display

 LCD character displays can be found in many devices, like espresso machines, laser printers. 
 The Hitachi HD44780 controller and its compatible controllers like Samsung KS0066U have become an industry standard for these types of displays. 
 
 This library allows easy interfacing with a HD44780 compatible display and can be
 operated in memory mapped mode (LCD_IO_MODE defined as 0 in the include file lcd.h.) or in 
 4-bit IO port mode (LCD_IO_MODE defined as 1). 8-bit IO port mode is not supported.

 Memory mapped mode is compatible with old Kanda STK200 starter kit, but also supports
 generation of R/W signal through A8 address line.

 @see The chapter <a href=" http://homepage.hispeed.ch/peterfleury/avr-lcd44780.html" target="_blank">Interfacing a HD44780 Based LCD to an AVR</a>
      on my home page, which shows example circuits how to connect an LCD to an AVR controller. 

 @author Peter Fleury pfleury@gmx.ch http://tinyurl.com/peterfleury
 
 @version   2.0
 
 @copyright (C) 2015 Peter Fleury, GNU General Public License Version 3
  
*/

#include <inttypes.h>
#include <avr/pgmspace.h>

#if (__GNUC__ * 100 + __GNUC_MINOR__) < 405
#error "This library requires AVR-GCC 4.5 or later, update to newer AVR-GCC compiler !"
#endif


/**@{*/

/*
 * LCD and target specific definitions below can be defined in a separate include file with name lcd_definitions.h instead modifying this file 
 * by adding -D_LCD_DEFINITIONS_FILE to the CDEFS section in the Makefile
 * All definitions added to the file lcd_definitions.h will override the default definitions from lcd.h
 */
#ifdef _LCD_DEFINITIONS_FILE
#include "lcd_definitions.h"
#endif


/**
 * @name  Definition for LCD controller type
 * Use 0 for HD44780 controller, change to 1 for displays with KS0073 controller.
 */
#ifndef LCD_CONTROLLER_KS0073 
#define LCD_CONTROLLER_KS0073 0  /**< Use 0 for HD44780 controller, 1 for KS0073 controller */
#endif

/** 
 * @name  Definitions for Display Size 
 * Change these definitions to adapt setting to your display
 *
 * These definitions can be defined in a separate include file \b lcd_definitions.h instead modifying this file by 
 * adding -D_LCD_DEFINITIONS_FILE to the CDEFS section in the Makefile.
 * All definitions added to the file lcd_definitions.h will override the default definitions from lcd.h
 *
 */
#ifndef LCD_LINES
#define LCD_LINES           2     /**< number of visible lines of the display */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DISP_LENGTH
#define LCD_DISP_LENGTH    16     /**< visibles characters per line of the display */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_LINE_LENGTH
#define LCD_LINE_LENGTH  0x40     /**< internal line length of the display    */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_START_LINE1
#define LCD_START_LINE1  0x00     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 1 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_START_LINE2
#define LCD_START_LINE2  0x40     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 2 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_START_LINE3
#define LCD_START_LINE3  0x14     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 3 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_START_LINE4
#define LCD_START_LINE4  0x54     /**< DDRAM address of first char of line 4 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_WRAP_LINES
#define LCD_WRAP_LINES      0     /**< 0: no wrap, 1: wrap at end of visibile line */
#endif


/**
 * @name Definitions for 4-bit IO mode
 *
 * The four LCD data lines and the three control lines RS, RW, E can be on the 
 * same port or on different ports. 
 * Change LCD_RS_PORT, LCD_RW_PORT, LCD_E_PORT if you want the control lines on
 * different ports. 
 *
 * Normally the four data lines should be mapped to bit 0..3 on one port, but it
 * is possible to connect these data lines in different order or even on different
 * ports by adapting the LCD_DATAx_PORT and LCD_DATAx_PIN definitions.
 *
 * Adjust these definitions to your target.\n 
 * These definitions can be defined in a separate include file \b lcd_definitions.h instead modifying this file by 
 * adding \b -D_LCD_DEFINITIONS_FILE to the \b CDEFS section in the Makefile.
 * All definitions added to the file lcd_definitions.h will override the default definitions from lcd.h
 *  
 */
#define LCD_IO_MODE      1            /**< 0: memory mapped mode, 1: IO port mode */

#if LCD_IO_MODE

#ifndef LCD_PORT
#define LCD_PORT         PORTA        /**< port for the LCD lines   */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA0_PORT
#define LCD_DATA0_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 0 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA1_PORT
#define LCD_DATA1_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 1 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA2_PORT
#define LCD_DATA2_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 2 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA3_PORT
#define LCD_DATA3_PORT   LCD_PORT     /**< port for 4bit data bit 3 */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA0_PIN
#define LCD_DATA0_PIN    0            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 0  */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA1_PIN
#define LCD_DATA1_PIN    1            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 1  */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA2_PIN
#define LCD_DATA2_PIN    2            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 2  */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DATA3_PIN
#define LCD_DATA3_PIN    3            /**< pin for 4bit data bit 3  */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_RS_PORT
#define LCD_RS_PORT      LCD_PORT     /**< port for RS line         */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_RS_PIN
#define LCD_RS_PIN       4            /**< pin  for RS line         */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_RW_PORT
#define LCD_RW_PORT      LCD_PORT     /**< port for RW line         */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_RW_PIN
#define LCD_RW_PIN       5            /**< pin  for RW line         */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_E_PORT
#define LCD_E_PORT       LCD_PORT     /**< port for Enable line     */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_E_PIN
#define LCD_E_PIN        6            /**< pin  for Enable line     */
#endif

#elif defined(__AVR_AT90S4414__) || defined(__AVR_AT90S8515__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega64__) || \
      defined(__AVR_ATmega8515__)|| defined(__AVR_ATmega103__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega128__) || \
      defined(__AVR_ATmega161__) || defined(__AVR_ATmega162__)
/*
 * memory mapped mode is only supported when the device has an external data memory interface
 */
#define LCD_IO_DATA      0xC000    /* A15=E=1, A14=RS=1                 */
#define LCD_IO_FUNCTION  0x8000    /* A15=E=1, A14=RS=0                 */
#define LCD_IO_READ      0x0100    /* A8 =R/W=1 (R/W: 1=Read, 0=Write   */

#else
#error "external data memory interface not available for this device, use 4-bit IO port mode"

#endif


/**
 * @name Definitions of delays
 * Used to calculate delay timers.
 * Adapt the F_CPU define in the Makefile to the clock frequency in Hz of your target
 *
 * These delay times can be adjusted, if some displays require different delays.\n 
 * These definitions can be defined in a separate include file \b lcd_definitions.h instead modifying this file by 
 * adding \b -D_LCD_DEFINITIONS_FILE to the \b CDEFS section in the Makefile.
 * All definitions added to the file lcd_definitions.h will override the default definitions from lcd.h
 */
#ifndef LCD_DELAY_BOOTUP
#define LCD_DELAY_BOOTUP   16000      /**< delay in micro seconds after power-on  */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DELAY_INIT
#define LCD_DELAY_INIT      5000      /**< delay in micro seconds after initialization command sent  */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DELAY_INIT_REP
#define LCD_DELAY_INIT_REP    64      /**< delay in micro seconds after initialization command repeated */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DELAY_INIT_4BIT
#define LCD_DELAY_INIT_4BIT   64      /**< delay in micro seconds after setting 4-bit mode */ 
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DELAY_BUSY_FLAG
#define LCD_DELAY_BUSY_FLAG    4      /**< time in micro seconds the address counter is updated after busy flag is cleared */
#endif
#ifndef LCD_DELAY_ENABLE_PULSE
#define LCD_DELAY_ENABLE_PULSE 1      /**< enable signal pulse width in micro seconds */
#endif


/**
 * @name Definitions for LCD command instructions
 * The constants define the various LCD controller instructions which can be passed to the 
 * function lcd_command(), see HD44780 data sheet for a complete description.
 */

/* instruction register bit positions, see HD44780U data sheet */
#define LCD_CLR               0      /* DB0: clear display                  */
#define LCD_HOME              1      /* DB1: return to home position        */
#define LCD_ENTRY_MODE        2      /* DB2: set entry mode                 */
#define LCD_ENTRY_INC         1      /*   DB1: 1=increment, 0=decrement     */
#define LCD_ENTRY_SHIFT       0      /*   DB2: 1=display shift on           */
#define LCD_ON                3      /* DB3: turn lcd/cursor on             */
#define LCD_ON_DISPLAY        2      /*   DB2: turn display on              */
#define LCD_ON_CURSOR         1      /*   DB1: turn cursor on               */
#define LCD_ON_BLINK          0      /*     DB0: blinking cursor ?          */
#define LCD_MOVE              4      /* DB4: move cursor/display            */
#define LCD_MOVE_DISP         3      /*   DB3: move display (0-> cursor) ?  */
#define LCD_MOVE_RIGHT        2      /*   DB2: move right (0-> left) ?      */
#define LCD_FUNCTION          5      /* DB5: function set                   */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT     4      /*   DB4: set 8BIT mode (0->4BIT mode) */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_2LINES   3      /*   DB3: two lines (0->one line)      */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_10DOTS   2      /*   DB2: 5x10 font (0->5x7 font)      */
#define LCD_CGRAM             6      /* DB6: set CG RAM address             */
#define LCD_DDRAM             7      /* DB7: set DD RAM address             */
#define LCD_BUSY              7      /* DB7: LCD is busy                    */

/* set entry mode: display shift on/off, dec/inc cursor move direction */
#define LCD_ENTRY_DEC            0x04   /* display shift off, dec cursor move dir */
#define LCD_ENTRY_DEC_SHIFT      0x05   /* display shift on,  dec cursor move dir */
#define LCD_ENTRY_INC_           0x06   /* display shift off, inc cursor move dir */
#define LCD_ENTRY_INC_SHIFT      0x07   /* display shift on,  inc cursor move dir */

/* display on/off, cursor on/off, blinking char at cursor position */
#define LCD_DISP_OFF             0x08   /* display off                            */
#define LCD_DISP_ON              0x0C   /* display on, cursor off                 */
#define LCD_DISP_ON_BLINK        0x0D   /* display on, cursor off, blink char     */
#define LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR       0x0E   /* display on, cursor on                  */
#define LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR_BLINK 0x0F   /* display on, cursor on, blink char      */

/* move cursor/shift display */
#define LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT     0x10   /* move cursor left  (decrement)          */
#define LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT    0x14   /* move cursor right (increment)          */
#define LCD_MOVE_DISP_LEFT       0x18   /* shift display left                     */
#define LCD_MOVE_DISP_RIGHT      0x1C   /* shift display right                    */

/* function set: set interface data length and number of display lines */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_1LINE  0x20   /* 4-bit interface, single line, 5x7 dots */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_4BIT_2LINES 0x28   /* 4-bit interface, dual line,   5x7 dots */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_1LINE  0x30   /* 8-bit interface, single line, 5x7 dots */
#define LCD_FUNCTION_8BIT_2LINES 0x38   /* 8-bit interface, dual line,   5x7 dots */


#define LCD_MODE_DEFAULT     ((1<<LCD_ENTRY_MODE) | (1<<LCD_ENTRY_INC) )



/** 
 *  @name Functions
 */


/**
 @brief    Initialize display and select type of cursor
 @param    dispAttr \b LCD_DISP_OFF display off\n
                    \b LCD_DISP_ON display on, cursor off\n
                    \b LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR display on, cursor on\n
                    \b LCD_DISP_ON_CURSOR_BLINK display on, cursor on flashing             
 @return  none
*/
extern void lcd_init(uint8_t dispAttr);


/**
 @brief    Clear display and set cursor to home position
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_clrscr(void);


/**
 @brief    Set cursor to home position
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_home(void);


/**
 @brief    Set cursor to specified position
 
 @param    x horizontal position\n (0: left most position)
 @param    y vertical position\n   (0: first line)
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_gotoxy(uint8_t x, uint8_t y);


/**
 @brief    Display character at current cursor position
 @param    c character to be displayed                                       
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_putc(char c);


/**
 @brief    Display string without auto linefeed
 @param    s string to be displayed                                        
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_puts(const char *s);


/**
 @brief    Display string from program memory without auto linefeed
 @param    progmem_s string from program memory be be displayed                                        
 @return   none
 @see      lcd_puts_P
*/
extern void lcd_puts_p(const char *progmem_s);


/**
 @brief    Send LCD controller instruction command
 @param    cmd instruction to send to LCD controller, see HD44780 data sheet
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_command(uint8_t cmd);


/**
 @brief    Send data byte to LCD controller 
 
 Similar to lcd_putc(), but without interpreting LF
 @param    data byte to send to LCD controller, see HD44780 data sheet
 @return   none
*/
extern void lcd_data(uint8_t data);


/**
 @brief macros for automatically storing string constant in program memory
*/
#define lcd_puts_P(__s)         lcd_puts_p(PSTR(__s))

/**@}*/

#endif //LCD_H

Using this i could compile and built Hex file on Atmel Studio 7.

 

Now on Proteus I'm trying to simulate on ATmega32, this LCD interfacing. 

Now my problem is on website they have mentioned use of HD44780, but on Proteus it looks like this (see attached image )(Image of HD44780 LCD controller)

I dont understand how to connect this blue line coming out of D[0..7] to any microcontroller port altogether ?

Am I seeing the wrong device?

 

Also I tried using a normal 16X2 alphanumeric LCD with Atmega32  on Proteus , it again showed the same problem of green bright display without any characters on it :( Please can someone point out the error ?) 

Proteus Simulation Using Peter Fleury&#039;s code

 

On the simulation log I got the following messages, I'm not sure what does it mean very well ? 

simulation_log file

 

Please tell me what should I change? Thanks a lot for your patience!

 

 

 

TBANRJEE

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Sorry for that @awneil  . you are right. This time I tried going through all the LCD.h  code (Peter Fleury's code) , but the new problem is I don't know how to connect HD44780 with the microcontroller (the pins D0-7)  at one go?Can you please help ? 

HD44780

TBANRJEE

Last Edited: Wed. Jan 10, 2018 - 06:38 PM
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For Proteus support call their support center!  After all, you paid for that support!

 

 

 

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This is free! I am just simulating on Proteus software 

TBANRJEE

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In 4 bit mode, aren't the high nibble bits used on the LCD? (d4:d7 with the low nibble grounded?)

 

Jim

 

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No, Proteus is not free!

 

https://www.labcenter.com/pricing/comm/

 

To find out how to use Proteus, you are going to have to study the Proteus documentation!

 

https://www.labcenter.com/tutorials/

 

For specific questions about Proteus, go to the Proteus forum:

 

https://support.labcenter.com/forums/index.php

This reply has been marked as the solution. 
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ki0bk wrote:

In 4 bit mode, aren't the high nibble bits used on the LCD? (d4:d7 with the low nibble grounded?)

 

Jim

 

Correct!

 

Jim

If you want a career with a known path - become an undertaker. Dead people don't sue! - Kartman

Please Read: Code-of-Conduct

Atmel Studio6.2/AS7, DipTrace, Quartus, MPLAB user

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Here is an example of how to wire up an LCD in 4 bit mode:

 

 

You can ignore the buttons as this came from a common LCD / keypad shield.

 

Jim

 

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You don't see a problem with this line?

# define F_CPU 4000000UL // clock speed is 16MHz

Comment indicates 16mhz, the define says 4mhz, and since there's no external clock on your schematic we must assume you're running off the internal RC, which would be 1mhz, unless you changed the fuses in the simulated Mega32.

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Thanks man! I thought HD44780 has to be used, and I'm having some error in using that. Sorry, now I know the wrong nibbles were connected. 

TBANRJEE

Last Edited: Wed. Jan 10, 2018 - 08:26 PM
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One more thing can someone explain this function from Peter Fleury's code ?

 

void wait_until_key_pressed(void)
{
    unsigned char temp1, temp2;
    
    do {
        temp1 = PIND;                  // read input
        _delay_ms(5);                  // delay for key debounce
        temp2 = PIND;                  // read input
        temp1 = (temp1 & temp2);       // debounce input
    } while ( temp1 & _BV(PIND2) );
    
    loop_until_bit_is_set(PIND,PIND2);            /* wait until key is released */
}

Which key does it mean when it says "wait until key is released" ??

Please explain how is it working, thanks!

TBANRJEE

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The code is written for a push-button switch to be wired up to pin 2 of PORTD. Wired up in a way so that when the button is pressed the pin is pulled low.

 

The two readings with a delay between is for handling switch bounce: All mechanical switches are behaving badly when closing or opening. Rather than making one distinctive contact (or breaking it) and then stay stable as long as the button isd pressed, there will be several quick closings-openings-closings lasting on the order of a few milliseconds before the switch comes to rest in the closed position. Reading the pin twice with a delay between the readings is an attempt to rule out spurious closing due to switch bounce. In embedded parlance the two reads with a delay between is a way to "debounce the switch".

 

Search these forums, and the rest of the web, for "switch bounce", "debounce" and similar for much more. 

 

The phenomenon is also known as "contact bounce" and Wikipedia has an article about it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sw...

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No guarantees, but if we don't report problems they won't get much of  a chance to be fixed! Details/discussions at link given just above.

 

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JohanEkdahl wrote:
The phenomenon is also known as "contact bounce" and Wikipedia has an article about it: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sw...

And Jack Ganssle has a famous article on it: http://www.ganssle.com/debouncing.htm

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Thank you so much for the explanation @Johan. One more question the codes written by Peter Fleury can be changed from 4bit to 8 bit interfacing by tweaking his code right? Or is it not possible? Is there already some 8 bit interfacing available? Please let me know guys..thanks!

TBANRJEE

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Why would you want to waste one full port and part of a second to do 8 bit data when all you need is one 8 bit port to do the whole thing with Peters code?

 

JIm

If you want a career with a known path - become an undertaker. Dead people don't sue! - Kartman

Please Read: Code-of-Conduct

Atmel Studio6.2/AS7, DipTrace, Quartus, MPLAB user

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oh yeah right we will be wasting more resource .But  Actually what I understood is that in Peters code we are working with higher nibble first and then the lower nibble, so in this process are we by any chance wasting time ? Or is it as fast as it would have happened with 8 bit interfacing?

TBANRJEE

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Tanushree Banerjee wrote:
Or is it as fast as it would have happened with 8 bit interfacing?

You wont notice the difference....

 

Jim

If you want a career with a known path - become an undertaker. Dead people don't sue! - Kartman

Please Read: Code-of-Conduct

Atmel Studio6.2/AS7, DipTrace, Quartus, MPLAB user

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okay.then..thanks man :)

TBANRJEE